ANDREW JOHNSO N
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· Political Party : DEMOCRATIC, WAR DEMOCRAT, NATIONAL UNION PARTY

· Years in office : April 15, 1865 - March 4, 1869


· Brief historical background

o Path to president
1. 1839, elected to the Tennessee Senate. He served two consecutive two-year terms.
2. 1843 - 1853, U.S. Representative
3. 1853 - 1857, elected governor of Tennessee
4. 1857 - 1862, served as Democratic U.S. Senate
5. Toured the state speaking in opposition to Tennessee's secession (which he said was unconstitutional)
6. 1862, Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of occupied Tennessee
- During his three years in office, Johnson worked hard to remove all pro-Confederate influences in Tennessee
- Lincoln chose Johnson as his Vice-President because of his "unwavering commitment to the Union."
7. Changed parties - broke away from Democratic party and joined National Union Party (which supported President Abraham Lincoln)
8.
March 4, 1865, inaugurated as Vice-President (replaced Hannibal Hamlin)
9. April 15, 1865, The morning after President Lincoln's assassination, Johnson was sworn in as President of the United States


o Highlights/Lowlights of career
1. Johnson pardoned many Confederate and ex-Confederate leaders to maintain control of Southern State Governments, Southern lands, and Black people
2. Johnson favored quick restoration of the Union and leniency towards Southern secessionist states
3. Passed Black Codes, vetoed Freedman's Bureau, vetoed Civil Rights Bill
4. Johnson opposed giving citizenship to the freed slaves because it was the attempt to pass a Federal Law while 11 out of the 36 states were unrepresented - Federal invasion of the states' rights - wanted to keep the Union centralized
5. Johnson unsuccessfully attempted to veto the Civil Rights Act and, also, unsuccessfully attempted to block the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
6. Republicans in Congress (who pushed for the Civil Rights Act, the Fourteenth Amendment, and harsh punishments for Southern secessionists) could not find a way to compromise with Johnson
7. 1867, first attempt to impeach Johnson - numerous complaints against him
8. 1868, Johnson removed Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War, and replaced him with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas. He was impeached over the charge of High Crimes and Misdemeanors and violating Tenure of Office Act

· Two domestic policy issues: Reconstruction Plans - Had much opposition from Congress
1. He wanted to follow Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan - state can be readmitted as long as 10 percent of its voters pledged allegiance to Union
2. States had to ratify Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendment to regain seats in Congress - only Tennessee passed amendments
3. States that didn't pass the amendment were divided into five military districts - a general was in control of each district


·
Two foreign policy issues
Reconstruction consumed most of Johnson's time. He left most foreign policy issues to Secretary of State William H. Seward
1. 1867, Johnson sent French out of Mexico
2. 1867, Johnson's Secretary of State bought Alaska from Russia


Presidential Report Card
(Be sure to include a letter grade and at least two comments)


· Character: B, Johnson is stubborn, but at least he knows what he wants and isn't afraid to say it. He was against the secession of the southern states although he was the governor of Tennessee.
· Morals: B+, Johnson knew what was good for his country (such as keeping the Union.) All his intentions, all though not carried out effectively, were good for America.

·
Economics: D, Johnson knew that the wealthy Southern plantation owners had too much power and that they needed to be stripped of this power, but he didn't create policies or laws which helped this cause. He was even against the Freedman's Bureau and Black civil rights which blocked the chances for the freedmen from gaining more money or power in a white society.

·
Effectiveness: C-, America eventually rebuilt after Civil War but he was unable to gain support from Congress for his Reconstruction plans

·
Political Skill: F, HE WAS IMPEACHED. He couldn't find a way to compromise with Congress and he displeased them so much, he was eventually impeached.

·
Vision: B+ His vision was strong. He knew his main goal was to recreate and mend the Union and he did what he thought was best to achieve it.

·
Leadership: D, he was unable to gain support from Congress or House. Although he may have had good ideas, he was unable to convince anyone else with his decisions.

·
OVERALL: C...at least he tried.